AlexNet for Dogs Vs Cats (Kaggle)


The previous article discusses the AlexNet architecture and its contribution to the field of Deep Learning. The implementation shown in that article is derived from the book Deep Learning for Computer Vision - Practioner Bundel. This is an excellent book that not only explains the theory and the math behind the various deep learning techniques, but also, shows how to efficiently implement it in Keras.

In this article we will see how the AlexNet model can be implemented from scratch on a Dog Vs Cat identification dataset. This dataset is a part of a Kaggle Challenge. What makes this dataset challenging despit having just two classes is that it is too large to fit into memory. Keras does allow batch processing of images by passing it just the image paths but this is limited by the I/O speed. The book shows an efficient way of data processing using the HDF5 format. This format although expands the dataset to a much larger file, the I/O is much faster and hence the training speeds up as well. A detailed discussion of the conversion of the datset to HDF5 format and the preprocessing of the images will be discussed in a lter article. But just as a brief note, the preprocessing involved are the same as discussed in the previous article. Random patches of 227 x 227 are extracted from the original 256 x 256 image. Their horizontal flipps are taken to give a large enough augmented dataset.

The Adams optimizer was used with a learning rate of lr=0.5e-3 ( the book uses 1e-3). Since the GPU it was trained on had lesser memory a batch size of 64 was used unlike the book where batch size of 128 was recommended. This prompted the reduction in the learning rate because without the reduction the same accuracy wasn’t achieved. A binary_crossentropy loss function was used since there were only two classes. The model was run for 75 epochs.

from config import config
print(config)
from dl_utils.preprocessing import ImageToArrayPreprocessor
from dl_utils.preprocessing import SimplePreprocessor
from dl_utils.preprocessing import PatchPreprocessor
from dl_utils.preprocessing import MeanPreprocessor
#from dl_utils.callbacks import TrainingMonitor
from keras.callbacks import TensorBoard
from dl_utils.io import HDF5DatasetGenerator
from dl_utils.nn.conv import AlexNet
from keras.preprocessing.image import ImageDataGenerator
from keras.optimizers import Adam
import json
import os

# construct the training image generator for data augmentation
aug = ImageDataGenerator(rotation_range=20, zoom_range=0.15,
	width_shift_range=0.2, height_shift_range=0.2, shear_range=0.15,
	horizontal_flip=True, fill_mode="nearest")

tbCallBack = TensorBoard(log_dir='./logs', histogram_freq=0, write_graph=True, write_images=True)
# load the RGB means for the training set
means = json.loads(open(config.DATASET_MEAN).read())

# initialize the image preprocessors
sp = SimplePreprocessor(227, 227)
pp = PatchPreprocessor(227, 227)
mp = MeanPreprocessor(means["R"], means["G"], means["B"])
iap = ImageToArrayPreprocessor()

# initialize the training and validation dataset generators
trainGen = HDF5DatasetGenerator(config.TRAIN_HDF5, 64, aug=aug,
	preprocessors=[pp, mp, iap], classes=2)
valGen = HDF5DatasetGenerator(config.VAL_HDF5, 64,
	preprocessors=[sp, mp, iap], classes=2)

# initialize the optimizer
print("[INFO] compiling model...")
opt = Adam(lr=0.5e-3)
model = AlexNet.build(width=227, height=227, depth=3,classes=2, reg=0.0002)
model.compile(loss="binary_crossentropy", optimizer=opt,metrics=["accuracy"])

# train the network
model.fit_generator(
	trainGen.generator(),
	steps_per_epoch=trainGen.numImages // 64,
	validation_data=valGen.generator(),
	validation_steps=valGen.numImages // 64,
	epochs=75,
	max_queue_size=64 * 2,
	callbacks=[tbCallBack], verbose=1)

# save the model to file
print("[INFO] serializing model...")
model.save(config.MODEL_PATH, overwrite=True)

# close the HDF5 datasets
trainGen.close()
valGen.close()

The model was able to achieve a validation accuracy of 93% slightly higher than what the original vanila implementation quotes.
Epoch 70/75
312/312 [==============================] - 444s 1s/step - loss: 0.4294 - acc: 0.9258 - val_loss: 0.4019 - val_acc: 0.9401
Epoch 71/75
312/312 [==============================] - 445s 1s/step - loss: 0.4161 - acc: 0.9261 - val_loss: 0.4531 - val_acc: 0.9134
Epoch 72/75
312/312 [==============================] - 443s 1s/step - loss: 0.4047 - acc: 0.9300 - val_loss: 0.4226 - val_acc: 0.9302
Epoch 73/75
312/312 [==============================] - 444s 1s/step - loss: 0.4178 - acc: 0.9275 - val_loss: 0.4025 - val_acc: 0.9319
Epoch 74/75
312/312 [==============================] - 444s 1s/step - loss: 0.4030 - acc: 0.9297 - val_loss: 0.3906 - val_acc: 0.9351
Epoch 75/75
312/312 [==============================] - 444s 1s/step - loss: 0.3994 - acc: 0.9300 - val_loss: 0.4124 - val_acc: 0.9306

Loss function and Accuracy summaries

Training Accuracy Training Loss
Validation Accuracy Validation Loss


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